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Table 1 Three-level precaution protocol

From: Emergency trauma care during the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China

Precaution level

Applicable personnel and scenarios

Personal protective equipment

Level 1

Triage, emergency department

Clean non-sterile long gown, disposable head cover, disposable medical mask, and gloves.

Level 2

Close contact with suspected patients, or handling secretions, feces, and personal items belonging to patients; performing CT scan (Fig. 1)

Disposable head cover, gloves, disposable coverall, N95 respirator or equivalent, goggle or face shield, rubber boots or fluid-resistant overshoes, etc.

Level 3

Close contact with suspected patients, or collecting blood, respiratory tract samples of patients, especially for endotracheal intubation, airway care, and sputum suction, as well as emergency surgery (Fig. 2).

On the basis of wearing secondary protective equipment such as goggle or face shield, other protective equipment should be strengthened. For instance, adding disposable surgical clothing and gloves in addition to disposable coverall and gloves. Two layers of gloves covering protective clothing and surgical clothes sleeves, respectively, use of a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR).