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Table 1 Patient’s characteristics

From: Open necrosectomy is feasible as a last resort in selected cases with infected pancreatic necrosis: a case series and systematic literature review

Study Country Year Study design Inclusion Criteria N° open/tot study period M/F Age (mean) Aetiology (%) APACHE IIa CT Severityb ICU admission (%) Comorbidities Organ Failure at presentation (%)
Husu et al. [26] Finland 2020 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for pancreatic necrosis 109 2006–2017 96/13 52 (42–61) A 62(56.9)
B 25(22.9)
I 11(10.1)
Hyper trig 0
O 11(10.1)
Nr Nr 44 (40.4) CV 22
P 10
CRI 4
D 11
OT 5
12 (11.0)
Martinez et al. [27] USA 2019 Rretrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for pancreatic necrosis 34/56 2007–2016 24/10 55.9 ± 14.4 A 4(11.8)
B 16(47.1)
I 0
Hyper trig 4(11.8)
O 10(29.4)
Nr Nr Nr Acute renal F 18 (52.9)
Acute respiratory F 18 (52.9)
multiple 16 (47,1)
Cao et al. [28] China 2019 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for infected pancreatic necrosis 45 2015–2017 32/13 51.89 ± 12.92 A 6 (13.3)
B 16 (35.6)
H 20 (44.4)
O 3 (6.7)
Nr 9 ± 1.1 Nr CV 22
P 1
CRI 2
D 8
OT /
single 17 (37.8)
multiple 7 (15.6)
Šileikis et al [29] Lithuania 2017 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for pancreatic necrosis 53/95 2007–2016 34/19 56.5 ± 16.1 Nr Nr 7.6 ± 1.9 Nr Nr multiple 41 (77.4)
Wroński et al [30] Poland 2017 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for pancreatic necrosis 22/70 2007–2014 16/6 49 (36–61) A 12(54.6)
B 4 (18.2)
O 6 (27.3)
Nr 8 (6–10) Nr Nr 4 (18.2)
Rash et al [31] Germany 2016 Retrospective multicenter cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy in severe pancreatitis 30/220 2008–2014 2.3:1 55 (18 ± 82) Nr Nr Nr Nr Nr 25 (73.3)
Gomatos et al [32] UK 2016 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for pancreatic necrosis 120 1997–2013 86/34 58.5 (42–70) A 53 (44.2)
B 37 (30.8)
I 5 (4.2)
O 25 (20.8)
8 7 36 (30) Nr multiple 30 (25)
Barreda et al. [33] Perù 2015 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy in emphysematous necrotizing pancreatitis (gas within the pancreatic necrosis on CT) 36/56 2003–2011 nr 54 (16–80) A 4 (7.1)
B 46(82.1)
I 3(5.4)
Hyper trig 2 (3.6)
O 1(1.8)
14 (6–28) 9.4 (8–10) Nr Nr single 30 (83.3)
multiple 21 (58.3)
Pupelis G et al [34] Latvia 2014 Prospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for infected pancreatic necrosis 39/70 2004–2014 32/7 47 (41–62) A 23 (59)
B 6(15.4)
O 10 (25.6)
12 (7–18) 8 (6-10) Nr ASA III 31 (79.5%) multiple 15 (38.5)
Tan V et al [35] France 2014 Retrospective multicenter cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for infected pancreatic necrosis 21/32 2005–2011 14/7 52(47–60) A 6 (28.6)
B 6(28.6)
O 9 (42.8)
12 (10–16) 6 (5—6) Nr CV 14
D 5 OT 9
13 (60)
Madenci et al [36] USA 2014 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for pancreatic necrosis 68 2006–2009 48/20 54.2 ± 1.7 A 26 (38.2)
B 19 (27.9)
I 5(7.4)
Hyper trig 5 (7.4)
O 13(19.1)
10.9 ± .8 7.6 ± .3 22 (32.3) Nr 24 (35.3)
Pascual et al [37] Spain 2013 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for infected pancreatic necrosis 21/39 1998–2010 10/11 62.5 ± 14.6 A 3 (14.3)
B 14 (66.7)
I 0
O 4(19)
10.6 ± 5.6 (r = 2–22) 10 (6–10) Nr 11 (52.4 %) single 3 (14.3)
multiple 11(52.4)
Tu et al [38] China 2012 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for infected Pancreatic necrosis 32/50 2006–2012 19/23 48.7 (33–71) A 3 (9.4)
B 28 (87.5)
Hyper trig 1 (3.1)
13.4 ± 5.2 5.3 ± 1.6 Nr Hypovol 14 Hypox10
ARenalF3
Acute GH 1
Nr
Senthil Kumar et al [39] India 2012 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for suspected or confirmed infected necrosis 15/30 2008–2011 15/0 41 (30–55) A 9 (60)
B 5 (33.3)
O 1 (6.7)
9 (5–20) CTI 7 (3)
CTI 8–10 (12)
11 Nr single 8 (53.3)
multiple 2 (13.3)
Bausch et al [40] Germany 2012 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for pancreatic necrosis 30/62 1998–2010 17/13 64 (25–88) A 5 (16.7)
B 4 (13.3)
I 2 (6.7)
O 19 (63.3)
Nr Nr Nr Nr multiple 22 (73.3)
Tan et al [41] China 2012 Retrospective multicentre cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for suspected or confirmed infected necrosis 51/76 2008–2010 33/18 44.1 A 24 (31.5)
B 30 (39.5)
I 4 (5.3)
O 18 (23.7)
12.46–5.8 4.91–1.23 Nr Nr Nr
Doctor et al [42] India 2011 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for infected pancreatic necrosis 59/61 1998–2009 49/12 43(18–73) A 14 (23)
B 25 (41)
I 3 (4.9)
O 19 (31.1)
> 9 ≥ 7 59 Nr Nr
Boland et al [43] USA 2010 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for infected pancreatic necrosis 21 2002–2008 13/8 53 (28–86) A 3 (14.3)
B 8 (38.1)
I 4 (19.0)
O 6 (28.6)
Nr Nr Nr CV 7 (%)
ARI 2 (%)
D 5 (%)
OT 4.
9 (43)
Raraty et al [11] UK 2010 Retrospective cohort Primary open surgical necrosectomy for pancreatic necrosis 28 2000–2008 Nr Nr Nr 10.5 (5–26) Nr Nr Nr Nr
van Santvoort et al [13] Netherlands 2010 Multicentre randomized study Primary open surgical necrosectomy for suspected or confirmed infected necrosis 45/88 2005–2008 33/12 57.4 ± 2.0 A 5 (11)
B 29 (64)
O 11 (24)
15.0 ± 5.3 8 (4–10) 29 (64%) CV 21 (47%)
P 4 (9%)
CRI 2 (4%)
D 4 (9%)
OT/.
ASA III 14 (31)
single 22 (49)
multiple 13 (29)
  1. aScores on the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scale range from 0 to 71, with higher scores indicating more severe disease
  2. bScores on the CT severity index range from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating more extensive pancreatic necrosis and peripancreatic fluid collections
  3. Nr not reported, A alcoholic, B biliary, I iatrogenic, Hyper trig hypertriglyceridemia, O other