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Table 3 General characteristics, hemodynamics parameters, surgical and resuscitation strategies, REBOA procedure-related information, and outcomes for the propensity-matched cohort

From: Outcomes and management approaches of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta based on the income of countries

Variable All (n = 132) LMIC (n = 66) HIC (n = 66) p value Missing
Age, median (IQR) 35.5 (25‑51.5) 36 (27‑49) 34.5 (24‑57) 0.5 0
Gender [female], n (%) 32 (24.2%) 17 (25.7%) 15 (22.7%) 0.6 0
Trauma mechanism     0.1 0
Blunt, n (%) 82 (62.1%) 37 (56%) 45 (68.1%)   
Penetrating, n (%) 50 (37.9%) 29 (44%) 21 (31.9%)   
ISS, median (IQR) 32 (25‑48) 32 (25‑48) 32.5 (25‑45) 0.7  
Pre-hosp CPR, n (%) 4/129 (3.1%) 1/64 (1.5%) 3/65 (4.6) 0.6 3
CPR on arrival, n (%) 3 (2.3%) 1 (1.5%) 2 (3%) 1 0
Admission SBP     0.1 0
Not measurable 16 (12.1%) 9 (13.6%) 7 (10.6%)   
< 50 16 (12.1%) 9 (13.6%) 7 (10.6%)   
50‑80 80 (60.6%) 39 (59.1%) 41 (62.1%)   
80‑100 9 (6.8%) 7 (10.6%) 2 (3%)   
> 100 11 (8.3%) 2 (3%) 9 (13.6%)   
Admission HR     0.01 3
< 50 5/129 (3.8%) 4/65 (6.15%) 1/64 (1.5%)   
50‑100 24/129 (18.6%) 12/65 (18.4%) 12/64 (18.7%)   
100‑120 37/129 (28.6%) 25/65 (38.4%) 12/64 (18.7%)   
> 120 63/129 (48.8%) 24/65 (36.9%) 39/64 (60.9%)   
Admission HR ≥ 100, n (%) 100/129 (77.5%) 49/65 (75.3%) 51/64 (79.6%) 0.5 3
Arrhythmia on admission, n (%) 18/115 (15.6%) 7/66 (10.6%) 22/49 (22.4%) 0.08 17
Pupilary response, n (%) 115 (87.1%) 59 (89.3%) 56 (84.8%) 0.4 0
Admission INR, median (IQR) 1.36 (1.2‑1.6) 1.37 (1.23‑1.62) 1.35 (1.2‑1.6) 0.3 53
Admission pH, median (IQR) 7.19 (7.03‑7.28) 7.21 (7.03‑7.28) 7.19 (7‑7.27) 0.9 22
Admission lactate, median (IQR) 6.8 (4‑10.8) 5.8 (4.3‑10.8) 7.2 (4‑10.4) 0.4 33
PRBCs in first 24 h, median (IQR) 7 (4‑10) 6 (4‑10) 8 (4‑12) 0.3 0
FFP in first 24 h, median (IQR) 5 (2‑10) 6 (3‑9) 5 (2‑10) 0.4 4
Platelets in first 24 h, median (IQR) 2 (0‑6) 6 (0‑10) 2 (0‑4) 0.1 17
Laparotomy, n (%) 88/130 (67.7%) 45/65 (69.2%) 43/65 (66.1%) 0.7 2
Pelvic surgery, n (%) 22/121 (18.2%) 9/66 (13.6%) 13/55 (23.6%) 0.1 11
Embolization, n (%) 14/122 (11.4%) 2/66 (3%) 12/56 (21.4%) 0.001 10
REBOA procedure      
Access location     0.09  
ER, n (%) 59 (44.7%) 24 (36.3%) 35 (53%)   
OR, n (%) 71 (53.8%) 41 (62.1%) 30 (45.4%)   
Angio, n (%) 2 (1.5%) 1 (1.5%) 1 (1.5%)   
Access technique     < 0.001 1
Blind, n (%) 48/131 (36.6%) 12/66 (18.1%) 36/65 (55.3%)   
US guided, n (%) 38/131 (29%) 15/66 (22.7%) 23/65 (35.4%)   
Cut down, n (%) 43/131 (32.8%) 38/66 (57.5%) 5/65 (7.6%)   
Fluoroscopy, n (%) 2/131 (1.5%) 1/66 (1.5%) 1/65 (1.5%)   
Primary performer     0.001 11
Vascular surgeon, n (%) 18/121 (14.9%) 14/64 (21.8%) 4/57 (7%)   
Radiologist, n (%) 7/121 (5.8%) 1/64 (1.5%) 6/57 (10.5%)   
ER physician, n (%) 7/121 (5.8%) 6/64 (9.3%) 1/57 (1.7%)   
Trauma surgeon, n (%) 82/121 (67.7%) 40/64 (62.5%) 42/57 (73.6%)   
General surgeon, n (%) 3/121 (2.4%) 3/64 (4.6%) 0/57 (0%)   
Anesthesiologist, n (%) 3/121 (2.5%) 0/64 (0%) 3/57 (5.2%)   
Resident/fellow, n (%) 1 (2.5%) 0/64 (0%) 1/57 (1.7%)   
SBP at REBOA initiation, median (IQR) 60 (40‑70) 50 (32‑65) 63 (50‑80) < 0.001 6
Zone of occlusion     0.1 0
Zone I, n (%) 98 (74.2%) 53 (80.3%) 45 (68.1%)   
Zone II, n (%) 3 (2.2%) 2 (3%) 1 (1.5%)   
Zone III, n (%) 31 (23.4%) 11 (16.7%) 20 (30.3%)   
Confirmed balloon migration, n (%) 2 (1.5%) 1 (1.5%) 1 (1.5%) 1 0
Groin access complications, n (%) 16/125 (12.8%) 6/64 (9.3%) 10/61 (16.3%) 0.2 7
AKI, n (%) 21/129 (16.2%) 8/66 (12.1%) 13/63 (20.6%) 0.1 3
MODS, n (%) 54/124 (43.4%) 43/62 (69.3%) 11/62 (17.7%) < 0.001 8
Respiratory failure, n (%) 33/125 (26.4%) 22/64 (34.4%) 11/61 (18%) 0.03 7
Sepsis, n (%) 15/125 (12%) 9/64 (14%) 6/61 (9.8%) 0.4 7
Ventilator days, median (IQR) 3 (1‑9) 3,5 (1‑9) 3 (1‑9) 0.6 5
Mortality, n (%) 57 (43.1%) 31 (49.9%) 26 (39.4%) 0.3 0