- Open Access
A rare cause of gastrointestinal phytobezoars: diospyros lotus
© Ertuğrul et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 2 April 2012
Accepted: 21 June 2012
Published: 21 June 2012
Diospyros Lotus (“Wild Date Palm of Trabzon or Persimmon”), which has been proven to cause phytobezoars, is a widely consumed fruit in the Black Sea and Northeast Anatolia regions of Turkey. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Diospyros Lotus together with other predisposing factors, on the development of gastrointestinal phytobezoars and to discuss the treatment results in comparison to the literature.
Material and method
The records of 13 patients, who had been admitted to the General Surgery Clinic of Düzce Atatürk State Hospital between August 2008 and August 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic characteristics, predisposing factors, clinical and radiological findings, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, and the outcomes of the patients were recorded from the patient files. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient for publication of this research article and accompanying images.
All the patients had a history of consuming Diospyros Lotus. Of the patients, 30,7% had a history of previous gastric surgery, 30,7% had diabetes mellitus and 23% had dental implants. None of the patients had hypothyroidism, which is another predisposing factor for phytobezoars.
The phytobezoars were located in the stomach alone in 23% of the patients, whereas 15,3% was detected in the jejunum and stomach, 15,3% was detected in the jejunum alone, and 46,1% was detected in the ileum alone. All patients were treated with surgery, and there were no deaths.
Gastric phytobezoars are rare. Preventive measures have particular importance in the management of this condition, which is difficult to treat. For this purpose, excessive consumption of herbal nutrients containing a high amount of indigestible fibers such as Diospyros Lotus should be avoided in patients with a history of gastrointestinal surgery or poor oral and dental health.
Clinical picture, ranging from an asymptomatic condition to acute abdomen, depends on the amount of Diospyros Lotus consumed, as well as to the location of phytobezoar.
In addition to radiological imaging methods, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is used in the diagnosis of phytobezoars.
Prevention is the primary goal in the management of phytobezoars, however when they occur, they have to be removed. Various endoscopic and surgical techniques, including gastric lavage, are used for treatment.
In the present study, the records of 13 patients who had undergone surgical intervention for gastrointestinal phytobezoars, considered to be caused by Diospyros Lotus consumption, were investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Diospyros Lotus, which is a widely consumed fruit in our region, together with other predisposing factors on the development of gastrointestinal system phytobezoars, and to discuss the treatment results in comparison to the literature.
Material and method
The present study was designed as a retrospective study. The medical records of 13 patients, who had been admitted to the General Surgery Clinic of Düzce Atatürk State Hospital between August 2008 and August 2011, and had undergone surgical intervention with a diagnosis of gastric phytobezoar, were reviewed.
Demographic characteristics, predisposing factors, clinical and radiological findings, diagnostic and therapeutic methods were recorded from the patient records, and morbidity and mortality rates were estimated. Current information regarding the disease, such as recurrence, was obtained from the patients themselves, and recorded. Written informed consents were obtained from all patients for publication of this research article and accompanying images.
Thirteen patients, (84,6% female) with a mean age of 54,4 years, were included in the study.
History for Gastric Surgery
All patients presented to the clinic with extensive abdominal pain, nausea and fecaloid vomiting. Physical examinations of the patients revealed abdominal distension, rigidity, and rebound tenderness, indicating an acute mechanical bowel obstruction.
Location of Phytobezoars
Stomach + Jejunum
Surgical Therapy Methods
Gastrotomy + Manuel Fragmentation and Milking to Cecum
Manuel Fragmentation and Milking to Cecum
Pathological examinations were performed. Macroscopically, the material was composed of plant fibers with the seed of Diospyros Lotus at the center. Microscopic examination revealed no cellular elements, but a material composed of plant fibers and food residue.
Only one (7,6%) patient developed wound site infection, which was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and daily dressings. None of the patients died.
The mean length of hospital stay was 10,5 days (range, 5–18 days).
The mean postoperative follow-up period was 21,3 months (range, 6–36 months), and no recurrence was observed.
Gastrointestinal bezoars are classified according to their contents. Phytobezoars are the most common type of bezoars, formed by excessive consumption of herbal nutrients. Celery, grape, prune, Diospyros Lotus and pineapple are the main nutrients responsible for phytobezoars. Such nutrients contain high amounts of indigestible fibers, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and fruit tannins. Trichobezoars, composed of hardened hair and hair-like fibers, are usually encountered in children with mental retardation and in adults with mental illness. Lactobezoar occurs in low birth weight infants fed with concentrated milk and formulas in the first week of life, pharmacobezoar occurs due the use of concentrated drug formulas (cholestyramine and kayexalate); and food bezoars occur due to the use of concentrated food formulas [1–5].
Various predisposing factors are responsible for gastrointestinal phytobezoars; the most important predisposing factors are loss of pyloric function, decreased gastric motility and acid secretion following gastric surgery, adhesions due to abdominal surgery, inadequate chewing, and excessive consumption of herbal nutrients including high amounts of indigestible fibers [3, 5–9]. Furthermore, delayed gastric emptying, which results from diabetic neuropathy, hypothyroidism, and connective tissue diseases, forms a basis for the development of gastrointestinal phytobezoars[9–11]. Chisholm et al. retrospectively examined 13 patients with phytobezoars, and found that all the patients had a history of persimmon consumption, whereas 11 (84,6%) had a history of gastric surgery . Krausz et al., in their retrospective study on 113 patients, showed that 106 (93,8%) patients had undergone gastric surgery, whereas 103 (91,1%) had a history of persimmon consumption . In the present study, all 13 patients (100%) had a history of Diospyros Lotus consumption, whereas four (30,7%) had a history of previous gastric surgery. Furthermore, four (30,7%) patients had diabetes mellitus and three (23%) had a history of using dental implants.
The main clinical symptoms are abdominal pain, epigastric distress, nausea and vomiting. In addition, sensation of fullness, dyspepsia, dysphagia, anorexia, weight loss, and gastrointestinal bleeding may be seen [1, 13–15]. Decreased bowel sounds, rebound tenderness, rigidity, distension, diarrhea, constipation, nausea and vomiting may be seen in complicated cases .
Small bowel obstruction is the most common major complication of phytobezoars. Moreover, gastritis, ulcer, and gastric perforation may be seen. Small bowel phytobezoars usually occur due to the extension of gastric phytobezoars [10, 16]. However, small intestinal phytobezoars may also be seen in patients with underlying diseases, such as diverticulitis, stricture, and tumor [17–19]. Small bowel obstructions due to phytobezoars usually occur in the terminal ileum and jejunum, which are the narrowest parts of the small intestine . Chisholm et al. identified phytobezoars in the stomach in two (12,5%), in the jejunum in four (25%), in the ileum in nine (56,2%), and in more than one region of the small intestine in two (12,5%) patients. Krausz et al. detected phytobezoars in the stomach in 13 (11,5%), in the small intestine and stomach in 20 (17,6%), and in the small intestine in 80 (70,7%) patients. In the present study, phytobezoars were located in the stomach alone in three (23%), in the jejunum and stomach in two (15,3%), in the jejunum alone in two (15,3%), and in the ileum alone in six (46,1%) patients.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and radiological imaging methods, such as plain abdominal radiography in the standing position, barium enema radiograph, abdominal ultrasound and abdominal computed tomography, are used for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal phytobezoars. Plain abdominal radiographs may show dilated intestinal loops, air-fluid levels and thickened intestinal wall . Barium radiography is contraindicated in patients with suspected complete obstruction and perforation. Phytobezoars may appear as an echogenic intraluminal mass and a remarkable posterior acoustic shadowing on abdominal ultrasound [21–23]. A dilated small bowel loop with a well-defined, round-shaped, heterogeneous, intraluminal mass distally, is typical on abdominal computed tomography. It typically appears as an intraluminal soft tissue mass that contains air bubbles [9, 17, 24, 25]. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy can detect all of the gastric phytobezoars, but just 12% of the small bowel phytobezoars. In the present study, diagnosis was made by abdominal tomography in 11 (84,6%), and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in two patients.
Gastric lavage, and endoscopic or surgical techniques, can be used in the treatment of gastrointestinal phytobezoars.
L-cysteine, metoclopramide and cellulose, papain and cellulose, pineapple juice, normal saline solution, sodium bicarbonate, hydrochloric acid, pancrelipase, pancreatin, 1-2% zinc chloride, and coca cola are used for the disintegration of the bezoar during gastric lavage [3, 19, 27–29]. Hayashi et al. observed that there was a significant decrease in the size and a significant softening in the structure of the phytobezoar by giving 500–1000 ml coca cola before each meal for three weeks, and they removed the mass using endoscopic forceps .
The first successful outcomes concerning endoscopic removal of gastric phytobezoars were published in 1972 by McKechnie. Endoscopic disintegration requires normal pyloric function and absence of duodenal obstruction . If the phytobezoar is not large in size, it can be removed using a basket catheter or by direct aspiration .
Surgical therapy may be performed either by open or laparoscopic technique. Main surgical techniques include manual fragmentation and milking to cecum, gastrotomy, enterotomy, and resection and anastomosis in complicated cases. As the prevalence of concurrent gastric and small intestine phytobezoars is 17-21%, care should be given not to leave any residue during surgery [32, 33]. Chisholm et al. performed endoscopic removal in one (6,2%), gastrotomy together with manual fragmentation and milking into cecum in one (6,2%), manual fragmentation and milking into cecum in nine (56,2%), enterotomy in four (25%), and small intestine resection and anastomosis in one (6,2%) patient . In a study conducted by Krausz et al., 14 (12,3%) patients underwent gastrotomy, 62 patients (54,8%) underwent manual fragmentation and milking into cecum, 34 patients (30%) underwent enterotomy, and two patients (1,7%) underwent small intestine resection and anastomosis . In the present study, three patients (23%) underwent gastrotomy, two patients (15,3%) underwent gastrotomy together with manual fragmentation and milking into cecum, five patients (38,4%) underwent enterotomy, and three patients (23%) underwent manual fragmentation and milking into cecum.
Krausz et al. reported early morbidity and mortality rates as 11,5% and 1,7%, respectively ; the morbidity rate was 7,6% in the present study, whereas no mortality was observed.
In conclusion, gastrointestinal phytobezoar is a rare clinical condition, difficult to treat and diagnose. Prevention is the best way to manage the disease. Therefore, excessive consumption of herbal nutrients, containing high amounts of indigestible fibers, such as Diospyros Lotus should be avoided by people with a history of gastric surgery or poor oral and dental health.
Written informed consents were obtained from all patients for publication of this research article and accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
- Andrus CH, Ponsky JL: Bezoars: Classification, pathophysiology and treatment. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988, 83: 476-478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alsafwah S, Alzein M: Small bowel obstruction due to trichobezoar: Role upper endoscopy in diagnosis. Gastrointes Endosc. 2000, 52: 784-786. 10.1067/mge.2000.108927.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Saeed ZA, Rabassa AA, Anand BS: An endoscopic method for removal of duodenal phytobezoars. Gastrointest Endosc. 1995, 41 (1): 74-76. 10.1016/S0016-5107(95)70282-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gurses N, Ozkan K, Ozkan A: Bezoars-Analysis of seven cases. Kinder Chirurg. 1987, 42: 291-292.Google Scholar
- Hayes PG, Rotstein OD: Gastrointestinal phytobezoars: Presentation and management. Can J Surg. 1986, 29: 419-420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ko SF, Lee TY, Ng SH: Small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar: CT diagnosis. Abdom Imaging. 1997, 22: 471-473. 10.1007/s002619900240.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Minami A: Gastric bezoars after gastrectomy. Am J Surg. 1973, 126: 421-424. 10.1016/S0002-9610(73)80137-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Buchholz RR, Hainsten AS: Phytobezoars Following Gastric Surgery for Doudenal Ulcer. Surg Clin N Am. 1972, 52: 341-351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Quiroga S, Alvarez-Castells A, Sebastiá MC, Pallisa E, Barluenga E: Small bowel obstruction secondary to bezoar: CT diagnosis. Abdom Imaging. 1997, 22: 315-317. 10.1007/s002619900198.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krausz MM, Moriel EZ, Ayalon A, Pode D, Durst AL: Surgical aspects of gastrointestinal persimmon phytobezoar treatment. Am J Surg. 1986, 152: 526-530. 10.1016/0002-9610(86)90221-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Norberg PB: Intestinal obstruction due to food. Surgery Gynec Obstet. 1961, 113: 149-152.Google Scholar
- Chisholm EM, Chung SCS, Leong HT: Phytobezoar: an uncommon cause of small bowel obstruction. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1992, 74: 342-344.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Verstandig AG, Klin B, Blomm RA, Hadas I, Libson E: Small Bowel Phytobezoars: Detection with Radiography. Radiology. 1989, 172: 705-707.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mangold D, Woolam GL, Garcia-Rinaldi R: Intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoars: observations in two patients hypothyroidism and previous gastric surgery. Arch Surg. 1978, 113: 1001-1003. 10.1001/archsurg.1978.01370200095019.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rumley TO, Hocking MP, King CE: Small bowel obstruction secondary to enzymatic digestion of gastric bezoars. Gastroenterology. 1983, 84: 627-629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Escamilla C, Roblos-Campos R, Parrilla-Paricio P, Lujan-Mompean J, Liron-Ruiz R, Torralba-Martinez JA: Intestinal obstruction and bezoars. J Am Coll Surg. 1994, 178: 285-288.Google Scholar
- Kim JH, Ha HK, Sohn MJ, Kim AY, Kim TK, Kim PN, Lee MG, Myung SJ, Yang SK, Jung HY: CT findings of phytobezoar associated with small bowel obstruction. Eur Radiol. 2003, 13: 299-304.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Frazzini VI, English WJ, Bashist B, Moore E: Small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar formation within Meckel diverticulum: CT findings. J Comput Asit Tomogr. 1996, 20: 390-392. 10.1097/00004728-199605000-00012.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lorimer JW, Allen MW, Toa H, Burns B: Small-bowel carcinoid presenting in association with a phytobezoar. Can J Surg. 1991, 34: 331-333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Teo M, Wong CH, Chui CH: Food bolus - an uncommon cause of small intestinal obstruction. Aust N Z J Surg. 2003, 73 (Suppl 1): A47-Google Scholar
- Ko YT, Lim JH, Lee DH, Yoon Y: Small intestinal phytobezoar Sonographic detection. Abdom Imaging. 1993, 18: 271-273.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McCracken S, Jongeward R, Silver TM, Jafri SZ: Gastric trichobezoar: Sonographic findings. Radiology. 1986, 161: 123-124.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Frager DH, Baer JW, Mollinelli B, Friedman M: Role of CT in evaluating patients with small-bowel obstruction. Semin US CT MR. 1995, 16: 127-140. 10.1016/0887-2171(95)90005-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Frager D, Medwid SW, Baer JW, Mollinelli B, Friedman M: CT of small-bowel obstruction: Value in establishing the diagnosis and determining the degree and cause. Am J Roentgenol. 1994, 162: 37-41.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fukuya T, Hawes DR, Lu CC, Chang PJ, Barloon TJ: CT diagnosis of small-bowel obstruction: Efficacy in 60 patients. Am J Roentgenol. 1992, 158: 765-769.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Naveau S, Poynard T, Zourabichvili O, Poitrine A, Chaput JC: Gastric phytobezoar destruction by Nd: YAG laser therapy (letter). Gastrointest Endosc. 1986, 32: 430-431.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gáyá J, Barranco L, Llompart A, Reyes J, Obrador A: Persimmon bezoars: A successful combined therapy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002, 55: 581-583. 10.1067/mge.2002.122332.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ladas SD, Triantafyllou K, Tzathas C, Tassios P, Rokkas T, Raptis SA: Gastric phytobezoars may be treated by nasogastric Coca-Cola lavage. European J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002, 14: 801-803. 10.1097/00042737-200207000-00017.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stanten A, Peters HE: Enzymatic dissolution of phytobezoars. Am J Surg. 1975, 130: 259-261. 10.1016/0002-9610(75)90380-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kazuki Hayashi, Hirotaka Ohara, Itaru Naitoh: Persimmon Bezoar Successfully Treated by Oral Intake of Coca- Cola: A case report. Cases Journal. 2008, 1: 385-10.1186/1757-1626-1-385.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McKechnie JC: Gastroscopic removal of a phytobezoar. Gastroenterology. 1972, 62: 1047-1051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lo CY, Lau PW: Small bowel phytobezoars: an uncommon cause of small bowel obstruction. Aust N Z J Surg. 1994, 64: 187-189. 10.1111/j.1445-2197.1994.tb02175.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goldstein SS, Lewis JH, Rothstein R: Intestinal obstruction due to bezoars. Am J Gastroenterol. 1984, 79: 313-318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.