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Table 2 Antibiotics commonly used to treat biliary tract infections and their biliary penetration ability [46]

From: 2016 WSES guidelines on acute calculous cholecystitis

Good penetration efficiency (ABSCR > =1) Low penetration efficiency (ABSCR <1)
Piperacillin/tazobactam (4.8) Ceftriaxone (0.75)
Tigecycline (> 10) Cefotaxime (0.23)
Amoxicillin/clavulanate (1.1) Meropenem (0.38)
Ciprofloxacin (> 5) Ceftazidime (0.18)
Ampicillin/Sulbactam (2.4) Vancomycin (0.41)
Cefepime (2.04) Amikacin (0.54)
Levofloxacin (1.6) Gentamicin (0.30)
Penicillin “G” (>5)  
Imipenem (1.01)  
  1. ABSCR Antibiotics Bile/Serum Concentration Ratio